Zcash is a publicly encrypted blockchain that uses so-called: zero-knowledge cryptography known as zk- SNARKS. This framework allows the user to use two addresses: one fully private and one transparent (similar to Bitcoin). Two configurable modes, shielded and transparent, allow the transaction to be completely anonymous or publicly displayed.
Concise Non-interactive Zero-Knowledge Arguments (zk-SNARK) are mathematical proof constructs that ensure that all information (sender, receiver, and amount) is encrypted while preventing double-spending, a key component of a successful cryptocurrency architecture.
Zcash provides a secure transport layer for your data (and ultimately your identity). It's like HTTP for the money. Imagine an armored car containing your data in a box. The in-vehicle security protects someone else from viewing the contents of the box, and also ensures that your data is safely transported.
Transactions have a memo field with which you can send additional transaction data, visible only to recipients. You can configure this note to suit industry, regulatory, or other regulatory requirements.